Arithmetic is the study of numbers. Maths covers a range, whole numbers, addition, division, metric conversions, ratios, etc. Historically, arithmetic and practical geometry are the oldest parts of mathematics. The four rules and the four basic operations of arithmetic are:
Mathematics as a formal area of teaching and learning was developed about 5,000 years ago by the Sumerians. They did this at the same time as they developed reading and writing. However, the roots of mathematics go back much more than 5,000 years.